Institutional racism is more harmful than individual racism

Institutional racism is when racial discrimination is established as normal behaviour within organisations that make up society. In other words, it’s so ingrained, it becomes completely commonplace – and it can be hard to even spot it.

But the existence of this structural form of racism is obvious through disparities in wealth, income, criminal justice, employment, housing, health care, political power, and education.

It’s an intangible and complex force that plagues many different industries and can stop people of colour from getting ahead or even surviving (BAME populations experience poorer health and barriers to accessing medical services).

The fact that it doesn’t have an obvious face, in the way individual racism does, can allow institutional racism to flourish within different organisations.

Of course, individual racism poses a visible and real threat to minorities around the world but this itself can be a product of structural racism – racism in education, in the police force, in healthcare which allow individual acts to happen.

Where did the phrase institutional racism come from?

The term was first coined in 1967 by Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton in Black Power: The Politics of Liberation.

It was bought into the British lexicon in the Macpherson report which looked at the death of Steven Lawrence who was killed in a racist attack in 1997.

It was defined as: ‘The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin.

‘It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people’.

Where can you see institutional racism?

The systems that make up modern society in Britain recognise and reward whiteness, and anyone not aligned with whiteness may miss out on the perks that come with that.

For example, those who don’t have a traditional Anglosaxon name sometimes find themselves at a disadvantage; recruiters may – subconsciously, or not – be less likely to hire someone with a different-sounding name (ethnic minorities need to send 60% more CVs to get the same number of call-backs).

In other cases, such as the criminal justice system, which sees tougher sentencing and even deportation to those from ethnic minority backgrounds, it can be even more damaging.

What is the impact of institutional racism?

People of colour will often say that they have to work twice as hard to get half as far – and institutional racism may be one factor that triggers this belief.

Positive discrimination schemes have been introduced at many institutions to try to redress the imbalance of opportunity, but there is still work to be done.

Institutional racism can help to explain why the most common CEO names are David and John across the world, despite white people being a global minority.

Even in places of great diversity, such as London, top positions and leadership roles are still not always equally delegated to people of colour.

Despite London having the biggest proportion of ethnic minorities, it still has the largest pay gap between white and ethnic minority groups, at 21.7%.

The stats speak for themselves, but the lived experiences of people of colour are incredibly telling as well. Below are a few examples.

Muhammed, lawyer

‘A few years ago, I was sending out CVs to various firms but would hear nothing back. I then kept the exact same information in my CV but substituted the name for something more anglicised, like Michael.

‘Unsurprisingly, I got way more call-backs as Michael.’

Raafaye, illustrator:

‘We have a systemic problem preventing access to the creative industry which filters out many people with so much potential.

‘I didn’t know what a creative, strategist or copywriter was until my current age of 28. I don’t believe that I’m unique in this.

‘A statistic that particularly shocked me is that there are less than 5% of ethnic minorities in the creative industry, despite ethnic minorities making up almost 44% of the population in London.’

Fope Olaleye, NUS Black Students’ Officer:

‘What we see in higher education is sadly a reflection of our society. There is a largely hidden set of issues, which drive many inequitable outcomes for students.

‘The sector needs to show a meaningful commitment to combatting acts of racialised hate or harassment students experience. Institutions must make reporting accessible, transparent, and effective at providing redress.

‘They must also ensure students are supported when they experience harassment. We welcome universities and national organisations to address the structural and cultural norms that enable racial harassment in our institutions.’

How can we fight institutional racism?

It’s hard to fight what you can’t see, which is why institutional racism often receives less criticism than individual racism.

Because it is so ingrained in society, it can feel as though it is difficult to dismantle, in a similar way that established systems like capitalism can seem impossible to ever change.

Race equality in higher education specialist Sofia Akel, tells that the onus is on those with power to do something about it.

‘Institutions must be willing to engage in honest reflection, research and deep understanding of the full extent of institutional racism in their organisations, only then can they begin to tackle the issues and embed change,’ explains Sofia. ‘However, individuals must also be prepared to reflect, understand and critique how they may also play a role in upholding institutional barriers.’

The first and easiest step is to recognise where it is happening and how it is impacting different sections of society.

The second step is to redress the imbalance and actively try to change the racial and religious make-up of institutions.

It’s important to consistently support and empower those without the same advantages, as well as step aside when necessary.

But, Sofia adds, it’s less about empowering racially minoritised people, as that ‘implies that we are somehow lacking in empowerment and skills in comparison to our white counterparts – which of course is not true’.

She adds: ‘It also implies that we are to blame for our racist oppression. We must get past this way of thinking to begin to tackle the root causes and impacts of institutional racism.’

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Crufts Day One: Dogs don their finest coats as they arrive in style

Travelling in style! Pampered pooches make an entrance on skateboards and wheeled cages as they arrive for the first day of Crufts at the Birmingham NEC

  • Crufts kicks off today at the Birmingham NEC – and the pampered competitors are arriving in style 
  • Adorable dogs donned their finest coats and hats as they were taken into the showground this morning
  • Many were too precious to set a paw on the ground and were pushed into the arena in prams or trolleys

From their patterned jackets to fluffy coats, these dogs were certainly making a style statement as they arrived for the first day of Crufts this morning.  

Some 20,000 competitors from around the world – and their indulgent owners – are gathering at the Birmingham NEC for the start of the four-day meet.

Among the early arrivals determined to stand out from the crowd was an adorable terrier who cruised in on a skateboard and a pair of dainty poodles who showed of patriotic Union flag coats. 

Elsewhere a dog was teemed to precious to lay one paw on the ground and was carried into the arena in its owner’s arms – with a silk scarf wrapped around its head to protect its fur from the rain. 

The competition kicks off today with skills including jumping, agility and flyball being judged in the ring in front of a crowd of excited animal lovers. 

The long-weekend builds up to the coveted Best In Show title, which is awarded to one lucky pup on Sunday evening. 

Alongside the competitions in the main arena, dog owners and lovers can peruse more than 550 trade stands, packed with treats for their much-loved pets, and visit the ‘Discover Dogs’ area, which allows prospective owners to familiarise themselves with 200 different pedigree breeds.  

Trend-setting: This Terrier showed off his unique mode of transport as he arrived at the arena by skateboard this morning


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Two coronavirus cases hit UK universities as graduation ceremonies postponed

Cases of coronavirus have been confirmed at two UK universities – as another cancels its graduation ceremonies over fears of the disease.

Students at Goldsmiths in south London have been informed that a visitor to one of the university's halls of residences has tested positive for the coronavirus.

Goldsmiths College says the case was discovered at one of its seven halls of residents – Chesterman House accommodation.

In an email, the university said the person was "being looked after" and that the student they were staying with is "self-isolating as a precautionary measure".

Queen's University in Belfast said they had been informed by the Public Health Agency of a "presumptive positive case of COVID-19" within the university community.

Meanwhile, the University of Buckingham announced it had postponed its graduation ceremonies "as a precaution against coronavirus".

The university does not have any cases of the virus, Buckingham and Winslow Advertiser reports.

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In a statement issued by Goldsmiths today, the college, which is part of the University of London and who's Chancellor is Princess Anne, said the student the guest had visited had been put into self isolation as a precaution.

In a statement the college in New Cross, south east London said: "A guest visiting a hall of residence used by Goldsmiths students has been diagnosed with coronavirus.

"Following advice from NHS 111, the Goldsmiths student they were staying with is self-isolating as a precautionary measure.

"Everyone is being supported by accommodation staff and we are in contact with the other students in Chesterman.

"We are tracing movements of the person diagnosed with coronavirus and the student who has self-isolated.

"We will work with relevant departments at Goldsmiths and the local NHS health protection team to contact anyone who is considered at risk of contracting the virus from them."

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The statement continued: "If you are concerned you have been in close contact with them call NHS 111 and follow their advice.

"We are also working with Campus Living Villages who manage Chesterman House.

"We had already escalated Goldsmiths' response to coronavirus to the level of Business Continuity Planning.

"This included having a plan for a confirmed case in university accommodation which colleagues are working to.

"A Critical Incident Group of senior staff has been planning how to respond to the virus since January. They will continue to monitor the situation and make changes as needed.

"At this point, Goldsmiths buildings and services are open as normal. We'll keep students and staff informed by email and this section of our website.

"We understand that this is a worrying time for those affected and for the whole Goldsmiths community.

"We will continue to consult closely with Public Health England and are taking all appropriate measures to protect our community."

The college – which originated as an art college – has 10,000 students – 20 per cent of which are foreign students.

Alumni include artists' Damien Hirst and Antony Gormley, and film director Steve McQueen who directed 12 Years a Slave.

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A statement on Queen's University's website reads: "We have been informed by the Public Health Agency of a presumptive positive case of COVID-19 (coronavirus) within our University community.

"We are working closely with the authorities to ensure that the individual receives the best care.

"We are now working with the Public Health Agency to trace anyone who has been in contact with the infected individual to ensure they are supported to receive medical attention if required and to take all appropriate steps to contain any further spread of the virus and protect the welfare of all within the wider University community.

"The University is open and operating as normal. Please continue to refer to this FAQs page and the latest official advice and guidance from the Public Health Agency and other statutory bodies."

Due to the Government’s precautionary warnings around the coronavirus (COVID-19), the University of Buckingham decided to postpone its graduation ceremonies which were originally scheduled for the 20th and 21st of March.

The University said it welcomes students of more than 100 different nationalities to the University and were looking forward to hosting the momentous occasion designed to celebrate their achievements.

They will be rescheduling the event for later in the year to ensure that they can congratulate all graduates with the level of ceremony and celebrations they deserve, the University said.

Vice-Chancellor Sir Anthony Seldon added: "After careful consideration, we believe this to be the best decision for our students and their guests.

"While we understand there will be disappointment at the news of a postponement, the health and safety of our students and their friends and family is of the utmost importance to us.

"We apologise for any inconvenience caused and hope that everyone will still join us for the ceremony later this year."

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6 Best SPF For Faces 2020 | The Sun UK

PROTECTING your face from the sun is one of the most effective anti-ageing moves you can make.

The best SPF creams and lotions are not just for holidays, they should be used daily to keep wrinkles, dark spots and pigmentation at bay.

It's important to look for a suncream that is 'broad spectrum', so there's protection from both skin-damaging UVA rays as well as UVB rays, which cause burns that can lead to cancer.

SPF creams have come a long way since the days of thick white layers and strong chemical smells.

There's now a host of sun protection products that you'll actually look forward to using, including complexion-boosting tinted SPF for coverage, antioxidant-rich creams for extra wrinkle-reducing prowess, and hydrating moisturisers with SPF.

So, whether you're looking for oily, sensitive or dry skin, we've picked the best SPF for faces to suit your needs.

1. Best SPF Facial Moisturiser

Applying daily sunscreen won't feel like a chore with this full-protection sunscreen superhero.

It's lightweight yet intensely moisturising, free from fragrance and nasties like paraben and is fast-absorbing without leaving a white residue – making it perfect for wearing under makeup.

It's an easy addition to your daily routine and also fab to pop in your carry-on for your next sun-filled getaway.  

  • Kiehl's Ultra Light Daily UV Defense SPF50 30ml, £29 from Feel Unique – buy here

2. Best SPF Foundation

This is your one-step-stop for all your skin's needs. 

The product offers top protection from the sun with an SPF 50, full coverage for an even, smooth complexion,  anti-ageing serum to banish wrinkles and hydration to keep you moisturised and dewy-looking.

Developed with plastic surgeons, it's packed with peptides, hyaluronic acid, collagen, and vitamins, to plump skin as well as reduce pores and blur fine lines.

It glides onto the skin and doesn't crease or cake.

In case you can't tell, we think it's a bit of a multitasking wonder product.

  • Your Skin But Better CC+ Cream with SPF 50+, £31 from Boots – buy here

3. Best SPF for Oily Skin

Suncreams have traditionally been heavy and greasy, but there's no excuse now for oily skin sufferers to skip the routine.

Lightweight, mattifying sunscreens that don't clog pores really do exist. And this is one of them.

This face cream offers high SPF 50 broad spectrum protection using only mineral-based filters with a non-greasy finish.

It's fragrance-free and contains Avène Thermal Spring Water to soothe your skin without the shine.

  • Avene Mineral Fluid SPF50+ 40ml, £17.50 from Boots – buy here

4. Best SPF for Dry Skin

A high-protection SPF 50 that also offers coverage for dry and sensitive skin? We're all over it.

Providing broad spectrum defence, the tinted moisturiser also works to soothe irritation, inflammation and prickly heat.

The brand's Thermal Spring Water, meanwhile, hydrates and leaves a radiant complexion.

  • La Roche-Posay Anthelios Ultra Comfort Tinted BB Cream SPF 50+ 50ml, £17 from Look Fantastic – buy here

5. Best SPF Lip Balm

We love having dry lips – said nobody, ever. So snap up a gorgeous tinted balm that protects the delicate skin as well as hydrates.

Leaving a sheer tint that adds a hint of colour and a lot of gloss, you can keep it in your handbag for out-and-about pout perfection.

You can also pop it on your cheekbones for a soft flush.

It's a little hardworking hottie that's also not tested on animals. 

The product is free from fragrances, parabens, mineral oil and sulphates. Now that's lip service.

  • Lanolips Tinted Balm SPF 30 in Rhubarb, £8.99 from Look Fantastic – buy here

6. Best SPF for Sensitive Skin

The Garnier Ambre Solaire Sensitive Sun Cream SPF 50+ is affordable, perfectly-sized to pop in your carry-on or handbag and offers full protection against wrinkle-causing UVAs and cancer-causing UVBs.

This potent little cream is specially formulated for fair and sensitive skin, and is infused with pure vitamin E to maintain a healthy, moisturised complexion.

All for under a fiver. We'll have two, please.

  • Garnier Ambre Solaire Sensitive Sun Cream SPF 50+, £3 from Boots – buy here

If you're looking to protect your skin but are worried about acne, check out our selection of the best SPF for acne.

Enjoyed our roundup of the best SPF for faces? We’ve also rounded up tonnes of the best beauty products on the market if you’re planning to transform your look.

We’re all about helping you find the best products at the best prices, so follow the link if you want to browse more of Sun Selects’ recommendations.

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Michael Bloomberg's Presidential Campaign Is Over

Michael Bloomberg dropped out of the presidential race on Wednesday morning after falling short on Super Tuesday, endorsing Joe Biden.

The announcement marked the end of an unconventional campaign that relied on huge amounts of advertising to make Bloomberg a viable candidate. Though Bloomberg’s strategy succeeded in making him a serious contender in the Super Tuesday states he competed in, the Democratic establishment’s last-minute consolidation around Biden after the former vice president’s win in South Carolina and Bloomberg’s poor performance in presidential debates combined to doom his campaign.

“I’m a believer in using data to inform decisions,” he said in a statement. “After yesterday’s results, the delegate math has become virtually impossible — and a viable path to the nomination no longer exists.”

“I’ve always believed that defeating Donald Trump starts with uniting behind the candidate with the best shot to do it,” he said. “After yesterday’s vote, it is clear that candidate is my friend and a great American, Joe Biden.”

According to a senior Bloomberg aide, Bloomberg made the decision to drop out on Wednesday morning after a meeting with his senior staff.

The aide said that up until Friday, the campaign had believed they were in a three-person race. But the campaign’s internal data had shown a dramatic shift toward Biden over the weekend as he won in South Carolina that ended up being reflected in the Super Tuesday results; the shift happened so fast they “couldn’t even model it.”

The aide said that the campaign had started to struggle in the week before the Nevada caucuses late last month, as Bloomberg began to take a “ferocious amount of incoming” in the form of opposition research and attacks on his record. This, compounded with Bloomberg’s poor debate performances, put the campaign in a downswing it didn’t have time to recover from before Super Tuesday. A plan for turning Bloomberg’s campaign into an organization to help Biden is still being worked out, the aide said.

Bloomberg called Biden Wednesday morning and they had a “good” conversation, another aide to the former mayor said.

Bloomberg had faced increasing pressure to get out of the race after Biden won South Carolina by a commanding margin, emerging as the favorite moderate candidate to take on frontrunner Bernie Sanders.

The former mayor spoke on Wednesday afternoon in a ballroom at the Sheraton in Midtown Manhattan, where he held a large “Women for Mike” themed campaign event in January and where he hosted election night rallies in past years during his mayoral campaigns.

He thanked supporters and staff, who packed the ballroom shoulder-to-shoulder. He told them “there is no doubt in my mind we would have beat Donald Trump in November.”

“But today I am clear-eyed about our overriding objective, which is victory in November,” Bloomberg said. “Staying in would make it more difficult” for Trump to be defeated in November, he said.

Referencing his motto “in God we trust, everyone else bring data” (a line that elicited appreciative laughs from the audience), Bloomberg said the results had shown “a viable path to the nomination no longer existed. And I will not be our party’s nominee, but I will not walk away from the most important political fight of my life and I hope you won’t walk away either.”

“I’m glad to say I endorse Joe Biden, and I hope you will join me,” he said.

Bloomberg built his public reputation as a data-driven wonk who shows little emotion, making it all the more striking that he choked up near the end of his remarks, his voice thick with restrained tears.

“Today, I’m sorry we didn’t win, but it’s still the best day of my life and tomorrow’s gonna be even better,” Bloomberg said. He referenced memorizing “The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere” as a child in Massachusetts; “Today I believe that our great nation still sees that light in the Old North Church Tower. The light of freedom, the light of liberty, the light of equality, and the light of opportunity.”

After Bloomberg wrapped up, some staffers took pictures with their teams in the ballroom while others filtered out, sporting campaign buttons and t-shirts. Some posed for photos and horsed around outside the ballroom with a cardboard cutout of Bloomberg brought to the event by some staffers from Long Island.

His decision to actually end the campaign comes after voting across 15 states and territories on Super Tuesday.

Though Bloomberg was not on the ballot in any of the four early states, he had been able to raise his poll numbers significantly in the Super Tuesday states in which he was competing by mounting an aggressive advertising campaign across the country. Bloomberg spent an unprecedented amount during his brief campaign, which only launched in November, months after most other candidates had entered the race. The billionaire former mayor of New York used over $500 million of his own fortune on his campaign, refusing to take donations and hiring an enormous staff.

For a time after the Iowa caucuses, which left the party in a state of confusion with no clear winner at first, Bloomberg’s candidacy gained strength as nervous moderate Democrats looked for an alternative to the then-slumping Biden. Bloomberg pitched himself as a competent manager who wasn’t intimidated by Donald Trump and would spend whatever it took to defeat him.

But Bloomberg’s decision to participate in primary debates after a DNC rule change allowed him to take part proved fateful; his performance in the debate in Nevada on Feb. 19 was so weak that one poll showed that his favorability numbers had dropped by 20% the next day. Though Bloomberg did better in the second debate he took part in, in South Carolina, the debates showed that even his large, slick advertising campaign couldn’t hide his weaknesses as a candidate.

Bloomberg’s record as mayor and as a business executive came under intense scrutiny as he became a more serious candidate; most notably, his record on stop-and-frisk and the history of allegations of sexism at his company became issues in the campaign. Bloomberg’s rivals effectively used these issues against him, particularly Sen. Elizabeth Warren, who memorably challenged Bloomberg on the debate stage on nondisclosure agreements signed by women who had made accusations at his company.

Since the beginning of his run, Bloomberg had promised to continue to use his campaign infrastructure and money to support whoever the Democratic nominee is. However, Bloomberg qualified this somewhat over the last week of his campaign as Sanders’ campaign said it didn’t want his money; he told the Houston Chronicle that he wouldn’t support Sanders if the senator’s team didn’t want the support.

More on Michael Bloomberg

  • Super Tuesday Is When We Find Out If Michael Bloomberg Can Win His $500 Million BetRosie Gray · March 2, 2020
  • Michael Bloomberg’s Campaign Is Huge. That’s The Point.Rosie Gray · Feb. 17, 2020
  • The Democratic Primary Is A Mess. Michael Bloomberg Is Taking Advantage.Rosie Gray · Feb. 8, 2020
  • Rosie Gray is a reporter for BuzzFeed News and is based in New York.

    Contact Rosie Gray at [email protected]

    Got a confidential tip? Submit it here.

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'B**ch to boss' tool is launched by internet giant Mozilla

‘B**ch to boss’ tool launched by internet giant Mozilla to combat abuse faced by women online by replacing derogatory insults automatically

  • US-based firm Mozilla launched the plug-in today to raise awareness  
  • Automatically detects sexist and derogatory terms such as b**** and w****
  • Replaces offensive language with ‘boss’ throughout searches and social media

Internet giant Mozilla, which operates the Firefox browser, has launched an online tool that automatically swaps sexist and derogatory terms for the word ‘boss’. 

The system – called B**ch to Boss – can be enabled on the Firefox browser and highlights the sexist abuse many women face online. 

Mozilla hopes the feature can raise awareness of the social media abuse faced by many women and minority groups. 

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Internet giant Mozilla, which operates the Firefox browser, has launched an online tool that automatically swaps sexist and derogatory terms for the word ‘boss’. The system – called B!tch to Boss – can be enabled on the Firefox browser and highlights the sexist abuse women face 


Source: Statcounter

Mozilla said in a statement alongside the release of the plug-in: ‘A person’s gender, age, race, or sexual orientation (or any personal characteristic) shouldn’t determine their access, opportunities, or quality of experience online. And yet . . . here we are.

‘B**ch to Boss finds and replaces all instances of derogatory words like ‘b**ch,’ ‘slut,’ and ‘nasty woman’ to simply read ‘boss’ across the web. 

‘Will this solve harassment online? No. Will it make comments sections, unsolicited DMs, and angry replies just a little bit funnier? Hopefully.’

The feature works on sites with German, French and English content and also protects men and gender-nonconforming individuals.  

It sports the offending content and replaces it with a ‘gender positive word’. 

Mozilla released the feature today as research from Amnesty International reveals 21 per cent of women in the UK have experienced online abuse or harassment. 

A Mozilla spokesperson told MailOnline: ‘The way women are treated online is disgusting. The statistics speak for themselves. 

‘Beyond the numbers and our own personal experiences, the issue really hit us in the face during last year’s International Women’s Day. 

‘On this occasion, Mozilla ran a series of videos of women tech innovators, and rather than being celebrated for their achievements many were trolled, bullied and called names. 

‘This got us thinking about what we could do about it. One of the things we’re doing this year is to try and make women’s experience a bit less sh***y by bringing some quiet, if not fun, into internet comments.’ .

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Cat died after killer smashed concrete slab over it’s head in back garden

A man who slammed a thick concrete slab on a cat's head twice in a cold blooded attack has been jailed.

Carl Dyson, of Blackpool, Lancashire, carried a black cat called Paddy into the back yard of a home in the town.

The animal was wrapped in a pink blanket, a witness recalled, and laid on the ground by Dyson.

He picked up a heavy looking slab of concrete and dropped it on the animal.

At Blackpool Magistrates' Court Dyson admitted causing Paddy suffering by inflicting a blunt force trauma.

Paul Ridehalgh, prosecuting for the RSPCA, said said:"What she (the witness) saw shocked her and she called the RSPCA.

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"She saw Dyson drop a slab as thick as a laptop on the cats head as it lay in the yard.

"She saw the cat try and escape from the blanket before Dyson did the same thing again.

"It was clearly deliberate. He took it upon himself to put a friend's cat out of what he thought was its misery.

"He crushed the cat head it was an inhuman act."

Gary McAnulty, defending, said that Dyson was on the way to a friend's house when he came across eight-year-old cat.

A veterinary examination found the cat had been suffering from a cancerous tumour in the mouth and was severely underweight.

The lawyer said: "He saw the cat was ill and wanted to put it out of its misery. It had tumours and could not eat properly.

"There would not have been a long period of suffering. It would have been over in seconds.

"The cat twitched so he did it again.

"My client does not have sick fantasies about cruelty. He had his own cat in the past which had suffered and did not want this cat to suffer in the same way.

"However he recognises the way he did it was entirely inappropriate."

In an interview Dyson said he thought Paddy may have been in a road accident.

Dyson was jailed for 12 weeks and given an indefinite ban on keeping animals.

He is planning to appeal the sentence.

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Mum brands kids’ book explaining reproduction ‘child-friendly kama sutra’

A mum was left baffled by a children's book she found in a doctor's waiting room containing bizarre explanations and diagrams of clowns demonstrating sexual positions.

The book 'Mummy Laid an Egg!' by Babette Cole starts off 'innocent enough' before taking 'a very surprising twist'.

Sharing images of the book on Facebook , Katherine Peck wanted other parents to experience what she branded the 'child-friendly Kama Sutra guide' – and it left thousands questioning its content.

By page six, readers are introduced to simplified drawings of genitalia, with an arrow from the penis to the vagina explaining 'this fits in here'.

It explains: "Daddy also has a tube. The seeds from the pods come out of it. The tube goes into mummy's tummy through a little hole. Then the seeds swim inside using their tails."

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It then moves on to provide examples of the ways in which people have sex, showing a couple flying along on a skateboard and – everyone's favourite – someone doing a headstand while another balances horizontally on top of them holding a colourful umbrella and spinning a ball on their finger. Oh, and both are wearing clown hats and noses.

There's also people doing it floating mid-air using balloons like a raunchy version of Up, and two using a space hopper – which is just impressive.

The mum-of-three describes this section as 'aerial acrobatics, fetish clown outfits and space hoppers' before it progresses through some other baby-making processes.

A sperm is depicted winning the race to the egg, as others head off with their tails between their legs, claiming 'we was robbed'.

A very relaxed mum is shown giving birth to her child, who joyfully pops out to politely greet their parent.

The mum who shared her find said the book left her with 'four billion questions I hadn't planned answering today', as the post recently resurfaced, racking up 85,000 shares and 71,000 comments.

One commented: "Usually I find myself being super quick with my witty responses, but I've been sitting here for a few minutes and I have nothing."

A second said: "Can you get me a copy? Been doing it wrong for years."

A third replied: "Perfectly explained! What a lovely children's book. Amazing author and even better illustrator! Bravo."

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Hair loss treatment: The essential oil proven to boost follicles and promote hair growth

Hair is made up of a protein called keratin that is produced in hair follicles in the outer layer of skin. As the follicles produce new hair cells, old cells are pushed out through the surface of the skin at the rate of about six inches a year. The hair that one sees is actually a string of dead keratin cells. Each follicle on one’s head has its own life cycle which can be influenced by age, disease and a wide variety of other factors.


  • Claire King health: Emmerdale star’s diagnosis left her ‘devastated’

Still today doctors are unsure as to why certain hair follicles are programmed to have a shorter growth period than others.

However several factors could be hormones, genes, stress, certain drugs, burns and injuries, having an autoimmune disease, medical conditions or diet.

Regardless of why some people experience more hair loss than others, what is a natural way to help boost the follicles again and promote hair growth?

Peppermint has been used for health purposes for many years and leading health experts believe the ancient Greeks, Egyptians and Romans used the mint thousands of years ago for a variety of health reasons.

Peppermint, in the form of an essential oil, is used in cosmetics and foods for its minty fragrance, tastes, cooling effect and possibly even for hair growth.

Peppermint oil can cause a cold, tingling feeling when it increases circulation to the area its applied to which could be the reason as to why the essential oil can help with hair growth.

How peppermint oil can help with hair growth

Peppermint oil is used in shampoos, cleansers, bath products, make up and lotions. However, the benefits of peppermint oil may go beyond just cosmetics.

Though research is still limited, peppermint oil could hold promise as a hair growth treatment too.

Findings published in Toxicology Research say a peppermint oil solution led to more hair growth than minoxidil, a hair-growth product approved by the FDA.

Sara Panton, co-founder of Vitruvi said: “Peppermint oil help to stimulate your scalp and hair follicles, but it should not be used for those with dry scalp or brittle hair.

“Peppermint oil stimulates blood circulation to the skin, which may help with increasing dermal thickness, follicle number and follicle depth.”


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What the study say?

In a study with Korea Science peppermint oil on hair growth on mice was investigated.

The animals were randomised into four groups based on different topical applications with saline, jojoba oil, minoxidil and peppermint oil.

Of the four experimental groups, the peppermint oil group showed the most prominent hair growth effects.

There was a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number and follicle depth.

The study concluded that peppermint oil induces a rapid anlagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth.

In another study in Microvascular Research it was found that a four percent menthol solution caused blood vessels to widen, which increases blood flow and could promote hair growth.

“The final benefit is simply that it can help you relax because it is so cooling and calming – which is always a good thing when you’re waiting for your hair to grow,” added Sara.

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Windows 10 update will change this iconic Microsoft feature forever

Microsoft is working on a new Start menu for Windows 10 that will ditch its flamboyant, and sometimes messy, array of app icon colours in favour of something that looks a little more consistent.

In a nutshell, it seems Microsoft is working to remove the background colours of tiles within the Start menu, putting the actual icons of apps front and centre.

As noted by The Verge, the Redmond firm discussed its plans for the Start menu going forward on the Windows Insider podcast.

Microsoft noted it wants to “visually differentiate the Start menu from something that’s chaotic colour to something that’s more uniform”.


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The Verge showed images of the new Start menu in action. In both light and dark modes, the iconic tool looks less overwhelming and is certainly stylish thanks to a more constant colour scheme.

Interestingly, the photos of the revamped Start menu don’t show any sign of Live Tiles – a feature that’s been on Windows 10 since its inception.

The idea of Live Tiles is certainly interesting – allow app tiles to be constantly updates to give users new information at a glance. However, with dwindling support for the feature there has been speculation Microsoft could be planning to get rid of them.

However, senior program manager on the Windows Insider team, Brandon LeBlanc, dispelled those claims during the podcast.

He said: “Live Tiles are not going away, we have not announced anything of the sort.

“Those that enjoy their Live Tiles will continue to be able to do so.”

While the claims from LeBlanc suggest Live Tiles aren’t going anywhere, it’s certainly possible Microsoft will disable them by default on future versions of Windows 10 and allow them to be enabled if the user desires.

After all, Microsoft has already replaced Live Tiles with static icons on its Windows 10X operating system that was announced at the tail end of last year.

As a quick reminder, Windows 10X is the American firm’s operating system designed specifically for dual-screen and foldable devices, many of which are anticipated to release at the end of this year, like the Surface Neo.

Of course, we won’t know what Microsoft plans to do with Live Tiles for sure until the firm releases its new Start menu to all users. will keep you updated with all the latest Windows 10 news, so stay tuned!

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